**Discussion**

The structure of our universe today is dependent upon the value of several universal constants which cannot be predicted from theory but must be observed. For example, according to Stephen Hawking, an eminent physicist, if the charge on the electron had been different from a -1 stars would either not have been able to "burn" hydrogen or they would not have been able to explode and scatter heavier elements back into space to eventually form planets. Under either of these circumstances life as we know of it would be difficult or impossible.

The properties of the elements are also dependent on these universal constants, namely the quantum numbers.

**The Challenge**

Create the periodic chart, for the first 110 elements, that would result from the following allowed values for a "new" set of quantum numbers.

*New Allowable Quantum Number Values*

Principle (N): 1 to infinity

Secondary (L): 0 to N. (changed from 0 to N-1)

Magnetic (M): -L..0..+L

Spin (S): 0 (changed from +1/2 and -1/2) This would be a universe with no spin (I think?).

In constructing your chart you are assume that "all other factors remain equal". (This probably would not be the case but it will give you a point to start from and make the task easier.)

1. This challenge was submitted by ?????????? (sorry, but I have lost the identity of the author).

2. This assignment forces students into a thinking situation where hopefully they will see the relationship between the periodic chart and the Quantum selection rules. The net effect of the changes made by ????????? is to allow each suborbital to occur one energy level sooner and only one electron per oribital. The periodic chart that would result in such a universe is below:

Questions? Comments?? |